International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 509-517

Impact of Feeding on Olive Oil with Thyme on Health Status of First Generation of Rat

Amany A. Salem*, Hayam A. Elsawy, Salwa S. Gabal

Special Food and Nutrition Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt

Email address:

(A. A. Salem)

To cite this article:

Amany A. Salem, Hayam A. Elsawy, Salwa S. Gabal. Impact of Feeding on Olive Oil with Thyme on Health Status of First Generation of Rat. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2015, pp. 509-517. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150405.11


Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding rats on virgin olive oil (VOO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with or without thyme powder on health status of their first generation. Outcome of pregnancy in each group (pregnant and lactating rats fed on olive oils and thyme which randomly divided into 15 groups) were divided into 2 subgroups (male and female) and feeding a month later (till 8 weeks aged). The babies were weighted, blood was collected and scarified. Organs were removed and weighted. Biochemical assays and bone measurements were evaluated. Generally, the groups fed on VOO had a high number of babies, a low body weight and high of liver weight compared to groups fed on EVOO. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and risk factor of male fed on olive oils (100%) had higher values than groups fed on olive oils (50%). Female groups showed observed that, which groups fed on olive oils (100%) had higher of TC, LDL-C and risk factor than groups fed on (50%). Creatinine and urea were increased in male rats fed on olive oils while decreased in the female rats compared to control group. Male groups fed on VOO and thyme were higher of AST, ALT and ALP than groups fed on EVOO. Concerning female babies, there are a high differences between groups. In groups (male and female) were high levels of Ca and P content of bone were observed in rats fed on VOO and thyme leaves powder compared to groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder diets. In conclusion, the feeding on olive oils (VOO and EVOO) with or without thyme leaves powder diets caused to increasing of fertility, improved lipid profile and increasing Ca and P of bone contents.

Keywords: Virgin Olive Oil, Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Thyme Leaves Powder, Rats, Biochemical Assays, Bone Measurements


1. Introduction

The nutritional condition during pregnancy influence in utero and fetal growth and disease in adulthood [1]. Few studies are conducted on the long term effect of excess nutrition during pregnancy or lactation on obesity development in offspring [2]. The epidemic of obesity and childhood disease in development country related partly to the association between prenatal nutrition and postnatal food consumption [3].Some studies investigated the role of maternal rich diet on fetal development [4]. The maternal obesity has a greater influence to increase the risk of disease in their offspring childhood [5].In addition to their pregnancy complication [6] and it documented a problem in human population with trans generation effect [7].

Virgin olive oil is a product widely produced and consumed throughout the ages in all over the word and is highly appreciated for its delicious taste and aroma, as well as for its nutritional properties [8]. Olive oil is established to have a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and has been widely recommended to be superior to other oils in maintenance of health, although no detailed comparative study has been reported on its efficacy in humans or animals [9]. Olive oil is considered a healthy product because of its constituents, which include oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids; in addition to traces of squalence and sterols. There is a considerable data demonstrating that the consumption of olive oil is beneficial to cardiovascular health; specifically it has a favorable effect on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. It has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antihypertensive and vasodilator effects in both animals and human [10].

Accordingly, Youdin and Deans [11] assess whether dietary supplementation of thyme oil could address the unfavorable antioxidant-pro-oxidant balance that occurs with age. They found significant declines in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the liver and heart of the old rats, although kidney showed no decline. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was found to have increased significantly in old rats, while a significant decrease was observed in kidney.

Herbs, aromatic plants and spices are ingredients that could be used for the production of flavored olive oils. It is well known that herbs maintain the nutritional value of the food, enhance the keeping qualities of food products and increase their shelf life [12]. While, Ayadi et al., [13] concluded that the incorporation of some Mediterranean aromatic plants to improve thermal resistance and stability.

Accordingly, El-Ghousein and Al-Beitowi [14] reported that the effect of dietary thyme in the chicken dieton serum level of glucose, total protein and globulins were significantly increased. Meanwhile, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased.

The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding on olive oil and thyme on health status of first generation of rat.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Materials

Virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) VOO was purchased from the privet sector (peroxide value = 0.05meq/kg and acidity <0.01%) at Sadat City, Egypt. The extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was obtained from Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center ARC, Giza, Egypt (peroxide value and acidity were 0.36 meq/kg and < 0.01%). Thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris) was obtained from Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center ARC, Giza, Egypt. Casein, vitamins, minerals, cellulose, and choline were purchased from El-Gomhoria Company for Drug, Chemicals and Medical Instruments, Cairo, Egypt. Starch and corn oil were purchased from local market, Giza, Egypt. Kits used to determine serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), urea, creatinine, alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were punched from Gamma-Tread Company, Cairo Egypt.

2.2. Biological Experiment

The basal diet consisted of casein (20%; protein ≥ 85%), wood cellulose (5%), vitamin mixture (1%), salt mixture (3.5%) and corn oil (10%). The ingredients of the basal diet were completed to 100 g with corn starch. The basal diet formulation was performed according to Reeves et al., [15].

Sixty adult Sprague-Dawely female rats (weight 113-123g) were purchased from the lab. of Animal Department of House in Ophthalmology Research Institute Giza, Egypt. The animals were housed in well aerated cages under hygienic condition (22 ± 2°C and 40-60 Relative humidity) and fed basal diet, for one week as adaptation period. After that the rats were randomly divided into 15 group (n=4) according to the following experimental diets as shown in Table (1), feeding a month before mating and carried out using one male to two females. The pregnant rats were left to delivery and lactating their babies. Then, after the lactation period (4 weeks) the babies were divided into 2 subgroups male and female. Each subgroup (both male and female) contained 6 rats of babies (outcome of pregnancy) which were choose randomly and feeding on olive oils and thyme diets for one month later (till 8 weeks aged). Then, the babies were fasted overnight before sacrificing. After that, the babies were weighted, blood was collected and rats were sacrificing. Organs were removed and weighted.

Blood samples were collected from eye plexuses of each rat. It cold in refrigerator for 15 min. The serum was separated by centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. Serum was carefully transferred into dry clean Eppendorf tubes and kept frozen at -18°C till analysis. Liver, kidney, heart and femur were removed by careful dissection and blotted free of adhering blood immediately after sacrificing the rats. The organs were washed in saline and dried using filter paper, then weighted and kept in formalin (10% v/v) according to Drury and Wallington [16]. Femur was clean and dried in an oven on 105°C overnight and kept till analysis.

2.3. Methods

Biochemical assays: Serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined according to Allain et al., [17], Fossati and Principle [18] and Burstein [19], respectively. Meanwhile, low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and VLDL) were calculated using the equation reported by Essam El-Din [20]. The risk factor (TC/HDL-C ratio) was calculated using the equation reported by Abbott et al., [21]. Serum urea and creatinine as kidney function were determined by the methods of Patton and Crouch [22] and Bohmer [23], respectively. Serum AST and ALT were assayed according to Reitman and Frankel [24]. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined according to Belfield and Golobkrg [25].

Bone analysis: Bone Ca and P were determined according to the methods outlined in AOAC [26]. Length and thickness of each femur were measured using a varnein caliper according to the method of Arjmand et al., [27].

Statistical analysis: Statistical analyses were carried out bySPSS19 program. Data were expressed as means ± SEM and the Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan’s tests as according to Snedecor and Cochran [28].

 

Table (1). The experimental diets for rats (g/100g).

Groups Basal diet without oil Corn oil Virgin olive oil Extra virgin olive oil Thyme leaves powder
1 90 10 -- -- --
2 90 5 5 -- --
3 90 -- 10 -- --
4 90 5 -- 5 --
5 90 -- -- 10 --
6 89 10 -- -- 1
7 87.5 10 -- -- 2.5
8 89 5 5 -- 1
9 87.5 5 5 -- 2.5
10 89 -- 10 -- 1
11 87.5 -- 10 -- 2.5
12 89 5 -- 5 1
13 87.5 5 -- 5 2.5
14 89 -- -- 10 1
15 87.5 -- -- 10 2.5

3. Results

Effect of feeding on olive oil and thyme powder diets on number of babies and their weight

Table (2). Effect of feeding on olive oil and thyme powder diets on number of babies and their weighted.

Groups Total NO. of babies Male Female
No. % Weight (g) No. % Weight (g)
1- Control 7e 3c 42.86 88.22b 4c 57.14 80.00bc
2- 50% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 8d 3c 37.50 82.32b 5c 62.50 76.00d
3- 100% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 9c 3c 33.33 59.00e 6b 66.67 53.00f
4- 50% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 8d 3c 37.50 89.00a 5c 62.50 90.00a
5- 100% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 9c 3c 33.33 81.67bc 6b 66.67 67.33e
6- 1%Thyme 9c 4b 44.44 86.66b 5c 55.56 65.00e
7- 2.5%Thyme 10b 4b 40.00 81.68b 6b 60.00 64.33e
8- 50% VOO+1%Thyme 10b 4b 40.00 73.32cd 6b 60.00 70.00de
9- 50% VOO+2.5%Thyme 12a 5a 41.67 58.33e 7a 58.33 49.33f
10- 100% VOO+1%Thyme 11ab 4b 36.36 73.31cd 7a 63.64 55.00f
11- 100% VOO+2.5%Thyme 12a 5a 41.67 58.34e 7a 58.33 54.33f
12- 50% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 9c 3c 33.33 81.67bc 6b 66.67 78.33bc
13- 50% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 10b 4b 40.00 85.33b 6b 60.00 81.67bc
14- 100% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 10b 4b 40.00 90.00a 6b 60.00 85.00b
15- 100% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 12a 5a 41.67 65.68d 7a 58.33 53.33f

* Value in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p≤0.05.

The results in table (2) showed that, the effect of feeding on olive oil and thyme powder on number of outcome of pregnancy and their weight. Generally, all groups fed on olive oil and thyme powder (individually and combined with all percentages) had a high number of babies compared to control group. The combination between olive oil and thyme powder had higher number of babies than either alone. Also, the groups fed on percentages (100% olive oil and 2.5% thyme) had a high number of babies (either alone or both). Moreover, the groups fed on VOO and thyme powder had a high number of babies compared to groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder.

Generally, there is a negative relationship between number of babies and their weights. The male body weight was higher than female weight. The group fed on 50% of EVOO only had the highest value of body weight followed by the control group (each male and female). While, the groups fed on VOO and thyme powder had low body weight compared to groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder.

3.1. Effect of Feeding on Olive Oil and Thyme Powder Diets on Weight of Some Organs for Male and Female Babies

The results in table (3) showed that, the effect of feeding on olive oil and thyme powder on organs weight for male and female babies. Generally, the group fed on 50% EVOO alone had the highest level of organs weight. The rats in groups fed on 100% olive oil with or without thyme powder were lower than groups fed on 50% olive oil for organs weight. The rats in groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder were lower than groups fed on VOO and thyme powder for liver weight. While, kidney, heart and spleen weight in groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder were higher than group fed on VOO and thyme powder (both male and female).

Table (3). Effect of feeding on olive oil and thyme powder diets on weight of some organs for male and female babies.

Groups Male Female
Liver Kidney Heart Spleen Liver Kidney Heart Spleen
1- control 1.34g 0.33d 0.23c 0.24b 2.44c 0.63a 0.22b 0.08d
2- 50% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 1.35g 0.31d 0.23c 0.07c 1.35h 0.10e 0.33a 0.08d
3- 100% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 1.14g 0.09e 0.33b 0.08c 1.14i 0.31d 0.23b 0.29b
4- 50% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 3.00a 0.60a 0.42a 0.22b 3.27a 0.55b 0.33a 0.22c
5- 100% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 1.84f 0.50b 0.25c 0.21b 1.72g 0.51b 0.22b 0.35a
6- 1%Thyme 2.71b 0.53b 0.40a 0.20b 2.34c 0.44c 0.34a 0.24c
7- 2.5%Thyme 2.31cd 0.42c 0.33b 0.25b 2.33c 0.53b 0.24b 0.24c
8- 50% VOO+1%Thyme 2.35cd 0.33d 0.23c 0.23b 2.33c 0.34d 0.23b 0.35a
9- 50% VOO+2.5%Thyme 1.93ef 0.32d 0.21c 0.25b 1.85ef 0.31d 0.24b 0.25bc
10- 100% VOO+1%Thyme 2.50bc 0.33d 0.42b 0.30a 2.72b 0.40c 0.33a 0.34a
11- 100% VOO+2.5%Thyme 2.16de 0.43c 0.23c 0.15c 1.82fg 0.31d 0.23b 0.25bc
12- 50% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 2.18de 0.60a 0.33b 0.10c 2.10d 0.52b 0.35a 0.33a
13- 50% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 1.91ef 0.52b 0.32b 0.22b 1.96e 0.63a 0.23b 0.22c
14- 100% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 1.74f 0.62a 0.23c 0.20b 2.11d 0.53b 0.34a 0.24c
15- 100% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 1.82f 0.42c 0.23c 0.09c 1.35h 0.40c 0.23b 0.24c

* Value in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p≤0.05.

3.2. Effect of Feeding on Olive Oils and Thyme Powder Diets on Lipid Profile for Male and Female Babies

Table (4). Effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder diets on lipid profile for male and female babies.

Groups Male Female
T. C. T.G. HDL-C LDL-C VLDL-C Risk factor T. C. T.G. HDL-C LDL-C VLDL-C Risk factor
1- control 92.33a 82.33a 36.67g 39.19de 16.46a 2.52g 91.20bc 89.00a 50.67bcd 22.73bc 17.80a 1.80l
2- 50% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 122.67f 93.32a 48.00bcd 56.01gh 18.67b 2.56g 95.80b 86.00a 39.33hi 29.20de 17.27a 2.44d
3- 100% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 104.67b 92.67a 41.67fg 44.47ef 18.53b 2.51g 98.67cde 150.33g 43.00fgh 25.60cd 30.07g 2.29f
4- 50% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 108.66bc 102.00cd 39.33fg 48.93fg 20.40cd 2.76c 95.37cd 130.00ef 46.00def 23.37c 26.00ef 2.07j
5- 100% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 106.00b 121.67e 51.67ab 30.00bc 24.33e 2.05h 113.67hi 102.33abcd 49.07bcde 44.13h 20.47abcd 2.32f
6- 1%Thyme 133.00h 131.00fg 50.00bc 56.80gh 26.20fg 2.66ef 104.00efg 139.67fg 58.67a 17.40b 27.93fg 1.77m
7- 2.5%Thyme 93.67a 109.66d 44.67cdef 27.07bc 21.93d 2.10h 111.50ghi 103.00abcd 51.00bc 39.90gh 20.60abcd 2.19h
8- 50% VOO+1%Thyme 117.33de 130.68fg 40.33fg 50.87fg 26.12fg 2.91b 118.83a 100.00abc 40.77ghi 58.06a 20.00abc 2.91a
9- 50% VOO+2.5%Thyme 113.33cd 98.33bc 41.67efg 51.99fg 19.67bc 2.72cd 107.33fgh 97.67ab 42.40fgh 45.40h 19.53ab 2.53c
10- 100% VOO+1%Thyme 95.00a 125.66ef 56.00a 13.88a 25.13ef 1.70j 96.67cde 121.00def 52.00b 20.47bc 24.20def 1.86k
11- 100% VOO+2.5%Thyme 93.00a 99.67bc 49.33b 23.73b 19.94bc 1.89i 109.00fgh 111.33bcd 45.40efg 41.33h 22.27bcde 2.40e
12- 50% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 127.67g 108.33d 43.00def 63.00h 21.67d 2.97a 110.40fg 118.03cde 51.50bc 35.29gh 23.61cde 2.14i
13- 50% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 122.00ef 126.67ef 46.33bcde 50.34fg 25.33ef 2.63f 98.17cde 129.33ef 36.83i 35.47fg 25.87ef 2.67b
14- 100% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 116.00d 138.00g 56.00a 32.40cd 27.60g 2.07h 101.67def 120.33def 45.33efg 32.27ef 24.07def 2.24g
15- 100% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 113.67cd 102.67cd 42.33defg 50.81fg 20.53cd 2.69de 118.33i 104.67abcd 46.57cdef 50.83i 20.93abcd 2.54c

 * Value in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p≤0.05.

The results in table (4) showed that, the effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder diets on lipid profile. The data resulted in the control group was the lowest level of lipid profile compared to other groups which fed on olive oils and thyme diets. The feeding on VOO (100%) caused decrease in lipid profile compared to VOO (50%) for male babies. And, the feeding on EVOO (100%) caused decrease in TC, LDL-C and risk factor and increase in TG and VLDL-C for male babies. Feeding on thyme powder (2.5%) caused decrease in lipid profile compared to (1%) thyme powder. Meanwhile, the groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder were higher than level of TC, TG, LDL-C and risk factor compared to groups fed on VOO and thyme powder.

Concerning female babies, the results noticed that a high differences in lipid profile between groups. Generally, the groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder were higher than groups fed on VOO and thyme powder for lipid profile. The rats fed on olive oils (100%) were increase of TC compared to rats fed on 50%. The groups fed on VOO (100%) and thyme powder (1% and 2.5%) decreased in TC, LDL-C and risk factor and increased in TG and VLDL-C. The group fed on thyme powder (2.5%) and VOO (50% and 100%) resulted in decrease of TG and VLDL-C compared to group fed on thyme powder (1%) and VOO (50% and 100%). Meanwhile, the groups fed on EVOO (100%) and thyme powder (1% and 2.5%) increased in TC. The groups fed on EVOO (100%) and thyme powder (2.5%) had decrease in TG, VLDL-C and risk factor compared to group fed on EVOO (50%) and thyme powder (2.5%). The results may be due to recommendation and hormones cycle in female especially during growth.

3.3. Effect of Feeding on Olive Oils and Thyme Powder Diets on Liver and Kidney Functions for Male and Female Babies

The results in table (5) showed that, the effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder on liver and kidney functions for male female babies. Generally, the groups fed on olive oils (100%) and thyme powder (2.5%) resulted in decrease in kidney functions for male babies. The groups fed on VOO and thyme powder were higher in kidney functions for male babies than groups fed on VOO and thyme powder. The rats in control group had the lowest level of serum creatinine compared to groups fed on olive oil.

Table (5). Effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder diets on kidney and liver functions for male and female babies.

Groups Male Female
Kidney functions Liver functions Kidney functions Liver functions
Urea Creat. AST ALT ALK Urea Creat. AST ALT ALK
1 control 20.67de 0.67ef 19.33bc 18.33ab 109.67d 28.80ab 0.93ab 15.33fg 14.27g 150.33abc
2 50% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 33.33a 1.06a 14.33fg 12.00e 138.33a 26.73bcd 0.80bc 19.80bc 18.60cd 102.33fg
3 100% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 29.33b 0.89b 18.00cde 19.00ab 113.00cd 20.00efgh 0.71cd 16.40ef 17.43de 128.67e
4 50% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 32.67a 0.99a 20.00abc 19.00ab 97.00e 22.67defg 0.76cd 16.07ef 16.33ef 136.00de
5 100% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 23.00cd 0.85bc 18.00cde 18.33ab 123.00bc 17.13h 0.53e 19.87bc 19.20bc 152.73ab
6 1%Thyme 18.00e 0.64f 15.33efg 13.00e 114.33cd 32.00a 1.07a 17.23de 15.40fg 144.67bcd
7 2.5%Thyme 17.67e 0.63f 21.67ab 20.33a 87.33e 29.67ab 1.00a 20.77ab 18.57cd 138.27cde
8 50% VOO+1%Thyme 25.33c 0.80cd 18.67cd 16.67bcd 110.00d 22.03efg 0.71cd 13.00h 12.60h 160.07a
9 50% VOO+2.5%Thyme 19.00e 0.75de 22.68a 11.67e 98.67e 23.10def 0.80bc 18.23cd 16.50ef 159.80a
10 100% VOO+1%Thyme 24.00c 0.79cd 17.67cde 14.67cde 94.33e 20.87efgh 0.81bc 14.33gh 20.20ab 149.33abcd
11 100% VOO+2.5%Thyme 19.33e 0.72def 17.00cdef 14.67cde 116.33bcd 21.13efgh 0.70cd 19.87bc 19.87abc 140.07bcde
12 50% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 33.00a 1.00a 18.00cde 17.33abc 121.67bcd 18.80fgh 0.61de 16.47ef 15.63fg 99.00g
13 50% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 29.33b 0.99a 13.00g 20.33a 112.67cd 26.63bcd 1.03a 20.17b 21.13a 114.50f
14 100% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 25.00c 0.84bc 15.67defg 13.33e 117.67bcd 18.33gh 0.61de 19.27bc 12.63h 107.67fg
15 100% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 20.33de 0.80cd 16.00defg 13.67de 127.33b 24.10cde 0.71cd 22.03a 17.50de 130.80e

 * Value in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p≤0.05.

Concerning liver functions, the results showed that, the group fed on VOO (100%) caused in an increment of AST and ALT and decrease of ALP levels compared to VOO (50%). While, the group fed on EVOO (100%) was decrease in AST and ALT and increase in ALP levels compared to group fed on EVOO (50%). Additional of thyme powder (2.5%) was higher than (1%) for AST and ALT, but ALP was a low. The data in same table (5) showed that, the groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder were higher than groups fed on VOO and thyme powder for ALT and ALP, while AST was a low.

Concerning the female babies, the data in table (5) resulted in there were high differences between male and female. Generally, the rats in control group had higher serum urea and creatinine contents than groups fed on olive oils, and lower than groups fed on thyme. The feeding on olive oils (100%) and thyme powder (2.5%) caused in decrement in kidney functions compared to olive oil (50%) and thyme powder. The groups fed on thyme powder (1%) and olive oils were lower than groups fed on thyme powder (2.5%) and olive oils for serum urea content. Meanwhile, the groups fed on thyme powder (1%) and VOO were higher than groups fed on thyme powder (1%) and EVOO, but the groups fed on thyme powder (2.5%) and EVOO were higher than groups fed on thyme powder (2.5%) and VOO for serum urea content. Serum creatinine was a low level in groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder when compared to groups fed on VOO and thyme powder.

The results in the same table (5) showed that, the group fed on 100% VOO caused in decrease in AST and ALT when compared to group fed on 50% VOO. While, the group fed on EVOO (100%) was increase in AST and ALT compared to group fed on 50% EVOO. On other hand, both VOO and EVOO (100%) caused in an increase of ALP levels. The rats fed on thyme powder (2.5%) were increased in AST, ALT and ALP compared to group fed on thyme powder (1%). The groups fed on VOO (100%) and thyme powder were higher than groups fed on VOO (50%) and thyme powder for AST and ALT. While, the groups fed on thyme powder (2.5%) with 50 and 100% of EVOO had high values of AST and ALT compared to groups fed on thyme powder (1%) with EVOO. The groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder were lower ALP content than groups fed on VOO and thyme powder.

3.4. Effect of Feeding on Olive Oils and Thyme Powder Diets on Measurements’ Bone for Male and Female Babies

Table (6). Effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder diets on Measurements’ bone for male and female babies.

Groups Male Female
Weight (gm) Length (cm) Thickness (cm) Ash (%) Ca (mg/100g) P (mg/100g) Weight (gm) Length (cm) Thickness (cm) Ash (%) Ca (mg/100g) P (mg/100g)
1- Control 0.043f 1.55f 0.281a 50.60cd 10.19i 4.04i 0.050f 1.61c 0.290abc 44.73e 10.25h 5.06f
2- 50% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 0.029h 1.62e 0.250b 53.23b 10.66h 4.16i 0.021k 1.65c 0.237efg 50.24b 9.68j 4.29i
3- 100% Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) 0.052d 1.73c 0.24bc 46.88h 11.82g 6.25e 0.046g 1.71b 0.290abc 35.53j 11.04e 5.27e
4- 50% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 0.060c 1.79b 0.227d 53.25b 9.16j 4.10i 0.057d 1.61c 0.297ab 51.10a 8.91m 4.46h
5- 100% Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) 0.047e 1.53f 0.239c 47.50g 10.64h 5.14h 0.032j 1.40f 0.230efg 38.70i 9.55k 4.89g
6- 1%Thyme 0.064b 1.75c 0.246bc 45.64j 12.82e 7.37c 0.033i 1.49d 0.270bcd 45.54d 10.34gh 5.27e
7- 2.5%Thyme 0.047e 1.50fg 0.246bc 50.20e 14.07c 7.75b 0.044h 1.64c 0.223fg 48.39c 13.93b 6.62b
8- 50% VOO+1%Thyme 0.028h 1.55f 0.281a 46.60i 14.84b 7.64b 0.053e 1.73b 0.220g 41.54f 13.49c 6.32c
9- 50% VOO+2.5%Thyme 0.036g 1.61e 0.284a 50.76c 15.20a 8.38a 0.053e 1.63c 0.257de 40.88g 13.84b 6.32c
10- 100% VOO+1%Thyme 0.047e 1.43g 0.284a 54.87a 13.55d 6.82d 0.044h 1.42f 0.290abc 38.65i 13.19d 6.24c
11- 100% VOO+2.5%Thyme 0.046e 1.38i 0.278a 49.87f 15.33a 7.36c 0.034i 1.46d 0.303a 35.65j 14.05a 6.75a
12- 50% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 0.073a 1.87a 0.242bc 46.76h 10.22i 6.25e 0.061c 1.87a 0.257de 35.54j 9.32l 5.28de
13- 50% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 0.075a 1.68d 0.240c 49.75f 12.28f 6.04fg 0.067a 1.72b 0.267cd 39.20h 10.53f 5.34de
14- 100% (EVOO) + 1%Thyme 0.046e 1.47gh 0.242bc 50.46d 12.41f 5.95g 0.044e 1.49d 0.220g 41.48f 9.83i 6.51b
15- 100% (EVOO) + 2.5%Thyme 0.046e 1.53f 0.278a 45.47j 13.53d 6.11f 0.062b 1.62c 0.250def 39.15h 10.43g 5.40d

 * Value in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p≤0.05.

The results in table (6) showed that, the effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder on measurements’ bone for male and female babies. Generally, using VOO (100%) in feeding caused to increase in femur weight compared to 50% VOO, while using EVOO (100%) in feeding caused to decrease in femur weight compared to 50% EVOO for male and female babies. The groups fed on VOO (100%) and thyme powder were higher femur weight than groups fed on VOO (50%) and thyme powder, while groups fed on EVOO (100%) and thyme powder were lower femur weight than groups fed on EVOO (50%) and thyme powder for male and female babies. The results for female showed that, the groups fed on VOO (100%) and thyme powder were lower femur weight than groups fed on VOO (50%), while almost a similar resulted in EVOO (both 50 and 100%).

Feeding on VOO (100%) caused to increase in bone length, while feeding on EVOO (100%) caused to decrease in femur length for male and female babies. The female results in the groups fed on VOO and EVOO and thyme powder were higher than groups fed on 100% both VOO and EVOO and thyme powder for femur length.

Concerning bone thickness, the results in table (6) indicated that, feeding on VOO (100%) caused to decrease in bone thickness and EVOO (100%) caused to increase in femur thickness for male babies. Meanwhile, feeding on VOO (100%) caused to increase in femur thickness and EVOO (100%) caused to decrease in femur thickness for male and female babies. The results showed that, the groups fed on VOO and thyme powder were higher than groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder for femur thickness male and female babies.

Moreover, the results indicated that feeding on both VOO and EVOO (100%) caused to decrease in total bone mineral content TBMC for femur (ash, %) in male and female babies. The groups fed on VOO (50%) and thyme powder were higher than groups fed on EVOO (50%) and thyme powder for TBMC. While, groups fed on EVOO (100%) and thyme powder were lower than groups fed on VOO (100%) and thyme powder for TBMC in both male and female babies.

The data in the same table (6) showed that, effect of feeding on olive oils and thyme powder on bone Ca and P contents. The results indicated that the rats fed on VOO were higher than rats fed on EVOO (individually and combined with all percentages) for femur Ca and P contents in both male and female babies.

4. Discussion

Nutrition in pregnancy, during lactation, childhood, and later stages has a fundamental influence on overall development. There is a growing research interest on the role of key dietary nutrients in fetal health [29]. Increasing of body weight and number of outcomes of pregnancy in this study are lines with [30] who found that, the groups fed on (50%) of olive oil were higher than groups fed on (100%) of olive oil and groups fed on VOO and thyme powder were lower than groups fed on EVOO and thyme powder for body weight gain. The rats fed on thyme (2.5%) were lower than rats fed on thyme (1%) for body weight gain. Also, it is worth mentioning that the presence of olive oil with/without thyme resulted in an increase in the number of outcomes of pregnancy compared to control.

Improvements in lipid profile in mice fed on the diet containing olive oil may be explains on the basis that olive oil is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUSFA) that improves blood lipid profile. Olive oil is excellent source of oleic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that olive oils containing a large fraction of MUSFAs and a substantial amount of PUSFAs promote a better triacylglycerol clearance from the blood [31]. In additionally, a diet with olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty reduced serum TG, LDL-c concentrations with respect to diets rich in SFAs [32]. Healthy heart effects from olive oil are attributed to its higher contents of monounsaturated fats and its higher ingredients of antioxidants; including: chlorophyll, carotenoids and the polyphenolic compounds, all of these compounds have free radical scavenging ability and protect vitamin E found in olive oil [33 and 34]. Diet rich in olive oil, has much more favorable effects on lipid profile and lipoproteins compared with coconut oil [35]. The results of lipid profile are in the line with [36] who found that organic olive oil was most efficacious in addressing levels of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. For all the parameters (except TG and VLDL), organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented changes. In this respect, [37] reported that the intake of phenol rich virgin olive oil decrease total cholesterol TC, LDL and TG levels and substantially increased HDL concentrations. Controlled studies carried out with phenol-rich olive oils al so have shown reductions of blood lipids and also of aortic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits when fed with diets devoid of cholesterol [38]. Simultaneously, olive oil raises the levels of protective HDL cholesterol. Olive oil polyphenols decrease oxidative stress by removing free radicals, the malignant toxic products of oxidation [39]. Bio-phenols contained in virgin olive oil inhibit the cell oxidation of LDL by increasing the mRNA transcription of glutathione enzymes [40].

Our results are line with [41] who found the rats fed on olive oil (1, 2 and 4ml/day/female rat) were lower than control group for serum urea and creatinine contents. Treated animals were found to have significantly lower urea level compared to control group in adult female rats. Absence of significant difference in blood creatinine level of control and olive oil treated rats implies that despite receiving massive amounts of the oil for a period of 30 days, olive oil did not cause any major defect in renal function in treated rats. But, the results aren’t line with [36] who found that, the control group had a low level for serum creatinine for male.

Accordingly, Carajal-Zarrabal et al, [42] found that, GOT and GPT values for control group was decreased in the rest of the groups which gave sucrose (S), olive oil (S-OO) and with avocado oil (S-AO). An increase, not a decrease, in these enzymes is indicative of liver failure in consequence to hepatic metabolic changes [43] was not observed in this case related to an increase in GOT and GPT values. A significant decrease in GOT was observed in the S-OO group. Both olive and avocado oils are recognized as oils with a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and a low percentage of saturated.

The results are line with [44] who found the feeding mice on diets containing soybean oil, palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat caused significant increases in calcium concentration in femur bone compared to the control group. Regarding concentrations of phosphorus, the diets only containing soybean oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat induced significant increases, compared to the control group. A possible influence of olive oil on bone mass inteance and osteoporosis prevention, its results showed that in a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil for woman had better bone density levels than those on a standard diet [45].Concerning monounsaturated fatty acids, a positive association between BMD and monounsaturated fat, derived mostly from olive oil, has been reported in a sample of Greek men and women [46]. The investigators discussed the influence that vitamin E, abundant in olive oil, exerts on prostaglandin levels and therefore on bone formation and resorption. Furthermore, a dose–response protective effect of oleuropain, an olive oil polyphenol, has been found on bone mass in an experimental in vivo model of bone loss in rats [47]. Accordingly, [48] concluded that olive polyphenols, particularly hydroxytyrosol, prevented bone loss in ovariectomized mice, and suggested olive polyphenols may provide insights into the development of tools useful in preventing and treating osteoporosis. Previous research on the impact of fish oils, rich in _-3 fatty acids, on skeletal biology has shown consistent and reproducible beneficial effects on bone metabolism and bone/joint diseases, associated in part with downregulating prostaglandin E2 formation, as evidenced in in vivo and in vitro experiments [49].The positive effects of olive oil may be due to its higher contents of MUSFAs, which had a positive associated with bone mineral density [50]. Olive oil prevents the bone loss and improves bone mineral density in rats [34].

5. Conclusion

The feeding on olive oils (VOO and EVOO) with or without thyme leaves powder caused to increasing of fertility, improved lipid profile and increasing Ca and P of bone contents.


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